A community guide systematic review: Digital HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis interventions


INTRODUCTION: HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective when taken as prescribed. Digital health adherence interventions have been identified as effective for improving antiretroviral therapy adherence among people with HIV, but limited evidence exists for PrEP adherence interventions among people without HIV. The purpose of this Community Guide systematic review was to present the characteristics and effectiveness of digital PrEP adherence interventions. METHODS: The author searched the CDC HIV Prevention Research Synthesis cumulative database for digital health interventions with PrEP adherence outcomes published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2022. Studies with comparison arms or pre-post data evaluating interventions in high-income countries were included. Two reviewers independently screened citations, extracted data, conducted risk of bias assessment, and resolved discrepancies through discussion. Summary effect estimates were calculated using median and interquartile interval. RESULTS: Nine studies were included and all focused on gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. Eight studies were U.S.-based while the other was conducted in the Netherlands. Five were randomized control trials and four were pre-/post studies. All studies showed improved adherence in the intervention arms compared with comparison groups or preintervention data. One study also reported improvement in PrEP care retention. DISCUSSION: Digital health adherence interventions with different strategies to improve PrEP and HIV-related outcomes were identified. The small number of studies identified is a limitation. Findings from this review served as the basis for the Community Preventive Services Task Force recommendation to use these interventions to increase PrEP adherence to prevent HIV infection.


Kamitani E, Peng Y, Hopkins D, Higa DH, Mullins MM




  • Population(s)
    • Men who have sex with men
    • General HIV- population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Prevention
  • Prevention
    • Biomedical interventions
  • Health Systems
    • Governance arrangements


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