A cross-jurisdictional review of HIV testing intervals for population groups at high risk of HIV infection
Key take-home messages
- Most guidelines recommend at least annual HIV testing of population groups at high risk of HIV infection. These include: men who have sex with men, transgender women and men, people who use injection drugs, African, Caribbean and Black communities, indigenous people, and women at risk.
- Some guidelines recommend more frequent testing (up to four times a year) for those who report increased risk behaviours (e.g., for men who have sex with men — any unprotected anal sex or use of recreational drugs during sex).
- The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) did not find sufficient evidence to recommend screening more frequently than at least once each year for asymptomatic sexually active men who have sex with men. At the same time, the CDC advises that each health care provider can consider the benefits of offering more frequent screening (e.g., once every three or six months) to individual men who have sex with men at increased risk for acquiring HIV infection, weighing their individual risk factors, local HIV epidemiology, and local testing policies.
- Few guidelines provide recommendations about HIV testing frequency of transgender women and men, African, Caribbean and Black communities, indigenous people, and women at risk, but most usually recommend at least annual testing.
The Ontario HIV Treatment Network: Rapid Response Service
- Men who have sex with men
- Transgender communities
- People who use drugs
- Indigenous communities
- Ethnoracial communities
- General HIV+ population
- General HIV- population
- Health Systems
- Delivery arrangements