A literature review on the adherence to screening guidelines for latent tuberculosis infection among persons living with HIV


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases the risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Although antiretroviral therapy decreases the progression of LTBI to tuberculosis disease (TBD), persons living with HIV (PLHIV) still have higher risk of TBD compared to the general population. LTBI screening is recommended for all newly diagnosed PLHIV to prevent TBD. However, several studies from low TBD incidence countries have reported sub-optimal implementation of these guidelines. This review aims to assess published studies on adherence to LTBI screening among PLHIV by identifying factors and determinants that affect the implementation of LTBI screening among PLHIV in low TBD incidence countries. Electronic databases were used to search for articles describing the adherence to LTBI screening guidelines. Fourteen studies were included in the final review. Ten studies assessed the frequency of PLHIV getting LTBI screening, and 4 studies assessed the compliance of health care providers in implementing the guidelines. PLHIV who were screened for LTBI ranged from 22.4% to 85%, of which 0.8% to 25.6% had positive results. Only 20% to 57.4% of surveyed physicians implemented the guidelines. Country of birth was an independent predictor of receiving LTBI screening. LTBI screening guidelines are inconsistently performed resulting in missed opportunities for TBD prevention. A comprehensive screening policy involving testing all PLHIV may be the best approach, rather than a targeted approach testing foreign-born individuals only. This will minimize missing domestic cases that can worsen disparity in HIV and tuberculosis infection among minority groups, including Asians, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.


Zorilla RA, Shikuma CM




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment
  • Testing
    • Testing
  • Co-infections
    • Tuberculosis


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