A scoping review on HIV early infant diagnosis among HIV exposed infants, ART use and adherence in Tanzania


BACKGROUND: HIV Early Infant Diagnosis (HEID) is critical for the timely initiation of HIV treatments and improved health outcomes among HIV-infected infants. However, the uptake of HEID remains largely low in Tanzania. This descriptive scoping review of evidence on HEID among HIV-exposed infants in Tanzania seeks to understand the dynamics of HEID, ART use and adherence to inform targeted interventions and promote its uptake. METHODS: The Arksey and O’Malley’s methodological framework guided this scoping review. We searched for peer-published articles on HEID in Tanzania through PubMed and Google Scholar with full-text retrieval from HINAR. We included only English language articles published between 2013 and 2022. Further searches for the materials on the reference lists of the publications yielded additional relevant articles. We carried out an inductive thematic analysis to analyze and synthesize the data. RESULTS: In all, nine articles met the inclusion criteria and, hence, qualified for the review. The variations in the uptake of HEID in the empirical literature reviewed indicate an upward trend. HEID increased from 77.2% in 2009 to 97.8% in 2011 in Kilimanjaro, Mbeya and Tanga and from 53.2% in 2014 to 69.2% in 2016 in Dar es Salaam. The median age at the initial test ranged from 5.6 weeks in Kilimanjaro to 8.6 weeks in Mbeya. The uptake of HEID was necessitated by individual, household and health facility factors. Unknown HIV status at conception, low level of education of the household head, and large household size negatively affected uptake of HEID. The health facility factors such as unavailability of the test kits, long distances to the facility and transport costs negatively influenced HEID uptake. The percentage of HIV-positive infants on ART ranged from 52.7 to 61%, and loss to follow ranged from 31 to 61%. CONCLUSION: The uptake of HEID varied among regions depending on individual, household and health facility factors. Multifaced efforts are needed to address these factors for accelerated uptake of HEID and improved health outcomes and survival among this strategic population group.


Metta E, Tesha N




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • Children or Youth (less than 18 years old)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment


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