A systematic review and cost-effectiveness analyses of the new World Health Organization guidelines for the treatment of HIV-positive adults in India


Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2013 has revised its guidelines on antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive adults and further updated it in 2016. Based on the WHO recommendations, in May 2017, National AIDS Control Organisation, India recommended initiation of ART treatment for all people living with HIV, regardless of CD4 count, clinical stage, age, or population. This systematic review aims to assess the clinical effectiveness and cost implication of the new guidelines for India. Methods: A systematic and comprehensive literature search on PubMed, OvidSP, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar was carried out. Studies reporting either acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or mortality or both as outcome variables were selected. A meta-analysis of the available studies was carried out. The risk ratio was calculated to assess the reduction in AIDS or mortality or both. Cost-effectiveness analysis using health technology principles evaluating the lives saved in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and cost per quality-adjusted life years gained was carried out. Results: Nine eligible studies were included for the meta-analysis. For India, the pooled relative risk of AIDS or mortality or both being 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.92) and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.68-0.89) for ART initiation at CD4 count of 500 cells/mm(3), respectively. The incremental cost for per additional life saved is US$ 2592 and US$ 2357 for ART initiation at 500 CD4 count, respectively. Conclusion: The adoption of the new WHO guidelines is beneficial with substantial reduction in AIDS or mortality or both. This study suggests that adopting new WHO guidelines is cost-effective for India


Patrikar S, Kachroo K, Sharma J, Kotwal A, Basannar DR, Bhatti VK, Mukherji S, Nair V




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment


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