A systematic review and meta-analysis of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) among people with HIV in Ethiopia


BACKGROUND: Ethiopia, being in the Sub Saharan region of Africa, is one of the countries with a substantial burden of HIV infection. Because of the high burden of HIV and poor health care settings, HAND is prevalent as demonstrated in various cross-sectional studies. However, no review has been conducted to report the consolidated magnitude of HAND among people with HIV in Ethiopia. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of HAND in Ethiopia. METHODS: Following the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed studies that investigated the prevalence of HAND in Ethiopia from PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, HINARI, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases. We also looked at the reference lists of the included studies to include other relevant studies. Subgroup analysis was performed based on publication year, study location, and sample size. Heterogeneity across studies was evaluated using the I2 test. Potential publication bias was assessed using Egger’s test and visual inspection of symmetry in the funnel plots. RESULTS: In the present meta-analysis, 627 articles were initially identified and evaluated. Of these, 8 studies that met the inclusion criteria were included in the final analysis. The pooled prevalence of HAND in people with HIV in Ethiopia was 39.15% (95% CI 29.36, 48.94). The highest prevalence observed in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region (SNNPR) with 53.20% (95% CI 25.96, 80.44) followed by others 34.87% (Tigray, Addis Ababa, and Oromia) (95% CI 33.49, 36.24) and Amhara 34.07% (95% CI 25.39, 42.74).The funnel plot was asymmetrical. However, Egger’s regression tests provided no evidence of publication bias in the prevalence of HAND. CONCLUSION: In this meta-analysis, the pooled prevalence of HAND, in Ethiopia, was high. Older age, substance use, advanced stages of the disease, and lack of education were the main determinants of HAND in Ethiopia. Health education, early screening of people with HIV, and training of health professionals working in hospitals on HAND are highly recommended.


Zenebe Y, Akele B, Selassie M, Necho M




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Mental Health
    • Neurocognitive disorders


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