A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence for community-based HIV testing on men’s engagement in the HIV care cascade


OBJECTIVE: Men with HIV are less likely than women to know their status, be on antiretroviral therapy, and be virally suppressed. This review examined men’s community-based HIV testing services (CB-HTS) outcomes. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched seven databases and conference abstracts through July 2018. We estimated pooled proportions and/or risk ratios (for meta-analyses) for each outcome using random effects models. RESULTS: 188 studies met inclusion criteria. Common testing models included targeted outreach (e.g. mobile testing), home-based testing, and testing at stand-alone community sites. Across 25 studies reporting uptake, 81% (CI: 75–86%) of men offered testing accepted it. Uptake was higher among men reached through CB-HTS than facility-based HTS (RR = 1.39; CI: 1.13–1.71). Over 69% (CI: 64–71%) of those tested through CB-HTS were men, across 184 studies. Across studies reporting new HIV-positivity among men (n = 18), 96% were newly diagnosed (CI: 77–100%). Across studies reporting linkage to HIV care (n = 8), 70% (CI: 36–103%) of men were linked to care. Across 57 studies reporting sex-disaggregated data for CB-HTS conducted among key populations, men’s uptake was high (80%; CI: 70–88%) and nearly all were newly diagnosed and linked to care (95%; CI: 94–100%; and 94%; CI: 88–100%, respectively). CONCLUSION: CB-HTS is an important strategy for reaching undiagnosed men with HIV from the general population and key population groups, particularly using targeted outreach models. When compared to facility-based HIV testing services, men tested through CB-HTS are more likely to uptake testing, and nearly all men who tested positive through CB-HTS were newly diagnosed. Linkage to care may be a challenge following CB-HTS, and greater efforts and research are needed to effectively implement testing strategies that facilitate rapid ART initiation and linkage to prevention services.


Groves AK, Stankard P, Bowler SL, Jamil MS, Gebrekristos LT, Smith PD, Quinn C, Ba NS, Chidarikire T, Nguyen VTT, Baggaley R, Johnson C




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • Men who have sex with men
    • Heterosexual men
    • General HIV+ population
  • Health Systems
    • Delivery arrangements


Abstract/Full paper

Email 1 selected articles

Email 1 selected articles

Error! The email wasn't sent. Please try again.

Your email has been sent!