A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of triplex infections (combined Human Immunodeficiency Virus, hepatitis B Virus, and hepatitis C Virus) among pregnant women in Nigeria


OBJECTIVE: We systematically identified the prevalence of triplex infections (combined human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV)) in pregnancy. METHODS: To gather information on the frequency of triplex infections, we searched the databases of PubMed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. Without regard to language, we utilized search terms that covered HIV, HBV, HCV, and pregnancy. Pregnant women with triplex infections of HIV, HBV, and HCV were included in studies that also examined the prevalence of triplex infections. Review Manager 5.4.1 was employed to conduct the meta-analysis. Critical appraisal and bias tool risk data were provided as percentages with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), and I(2) was used as the statistical measure of heterogeneity. The checklist was created by Hoy and colleagues. The study protocol was registered on PROSPERO, under the registration number CRD42020202583. RESULTS: Eight studies involving 5314 women were included. We identified one ongoing study. Pooled prevalence of triplex infections was 0.03% (95% CI: 0.02-0.04%) according to meta-analysis. Subgroup analysis demonstrated a significantly high prevalence of 0.08% (95% CI: 0.06-0.10%; 3863 women) in HIV-positive population than 0.00% (95% CI:-0.00-0.00; 1451 women; P < 0.001) in general obstetric population. Moreover, there was a significant difference in the pooled prevalence between studies published between 2001 and 2010 and between 2011 and 2021 (0.14% (95% CI: 0.12 to 0.16 versus 0.03% (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.04%; P < 0.001))) and participants recruited in the period between 2001 and 2011 and between 2012 and 2021 (0.13% (95% CI: 0.05 to 0.21; p=0.002 versus 0.00% (95% CI: -0.00 to 0.00%; p=1.00))), respectively. CONCLUSION: The combined prevalence of prenatal triplex infections was 0.03%, with rates notably higher among the group of pregnant women who were HIV-positive and during the recruitment period that took place before 2012. This prevalence still necessitates screening for these infections as necessary.


Eleje GU, Loto OM, Usman HA, Onubogu CU, Fiebai PO, Akaba GO, Rabiu A, Mbachu II, Chibuzor MT, Chukwuanukwu RC, Joe-Ikechebelu NN, Igbodike EP, Egeonu RO, Oppah IC, Ogwaluonye UC, Nwankwo CH, Kalu SO, Chigbo CG, Ogbuagu CN, Chukwurah SN, Uzochukwu CE, Ahmed A, Jibuaku CH, Inuyomi SO, Adesoji BA, Anyang UI, Emeka EA, Igue OE, Okoro OD, Aja PO, Chidozie CP, Ibrahim HS, Aliyu FE, Ugwuoroko HC, Numan AI, Omoruyi SA, Umeononihu OS, Okoro CC, Nwaeju IK, Onwuegbuna AA, Eleje LI, Ikwuka DC, Umeh EO, Nweje SI, Ajuba IC, Ugwu AO, Ebubedike UR, Malachy DE, Okafor CG, Obiegbu NP, Ugwu EO, Yakasai IA, Ezechi OC, Ikechebelu JI




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • Women
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-infections
    • Hepatitis B, C


Abstract/Full paper

Email 1 selected articles

Email 1 selected articles

Error! The email wasn't sent. Please try again.

Your email has been sent!