A systematic review of how to reduce morbidity in HIV patients with cardiovascular diseases


The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is known to cause cardiovascular diseases in patients infected with HIV. The pathology ranges from atherosclerosis to cardiomyopathy. There are several factors that could possibly cause cardiovascular diseases in the HIV population, including malnutrition and vitamin deficiency (for example, thiamine, B12, and zinc deficiencies); a lifestyle including increased prevalence of alcoholism and illicit drug usage; viral infection; and medication combinations that could cause sudden cardiac deaths. Cardiovascular diseases contribute to major morbidity in these populations and could have a reflection on the global financial burden, thus emphasizing the importance of prevention strategies. In this article, we focused on several factors that contribute to coronary artery disease and other cardiovascular diseases. We found that HIV has direct and indirect effects on the development of coronary artery diseases; furthermore, antiretroviral therapy adds to the deleterious effects of HIV and increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We further assessed the causal relationships and associations to understand the research gaps. In conclusion, this paper acknowledges and summarizes the current management strategies and the need to develop future strategies focusing on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and tailoring the regimens according to the patient’s clinical and socio-economic background.


Pallipamu N, Taheri S, Thiagaraj SS, Shukla TS, Gutlapalli SD, Farhat H, Irfan H, Muthiah K, Alfonso M




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-morbidities
    • Cardiovascular


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