Addressing gaps in cardiovascular care for people with HIV: Bridging scientific evidence and practice
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: People with HIV continue to have an excess burden of cardiovascular disease compared to the general population. The reasons for these disparities in cardiovascular disease include HIV-specific risk enhancers, traditional atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors, and sociodemographic disparities, all of which are ripe targets for intervention. RECENT FINDINGS: Accurate risk prediction of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains difficult, and cardiovascular risk for people with HIV may be underestimated in the absence of HIV-specific risk enhancers. Despite this increased cardiovascular risk, people with HIV are undertreated and often placed on inadequate lipid lowering therapy. Structural racism and HIV-related stigma play a role, and provider-level and structural-level interventions to encourage early identification and treatment of persons at high risk are necessary. SUMMARY: Persons with HIV should be screened with existing cardiovascular risk prediction tools, and those at high risk cardiovascular disease should be promptly referred for lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions as appropriate. System-level implementation research is ongoing in attempts to narrow the gap in cardiovascular care, particularly for vulnerable communities in low resource settings.
Liu A, Feinstein M
- General HIV+ population