Adherence, adverse drug reactions, and discontinuation associated with adverse drug reactions of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis: A meta-analysis based on cohort studies


Objective: Evaluate the profiles of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) adherence, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and discontinuation associated with ADRs to provide information for further PEP program improvement and increase adherence to PEP. Methods: The Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for cohort studies reporting data related to PEP adherence or ADRs (PROSPERO, CRD42022385073). Pooled estimates of adherence, the incidence of ADRs and discontinuation associated with ADRs, and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated separately for the included literature using random effects models. For substantial heterogeneity, meta-regression and subgroup analyses were conducted to explore sources of heterogeneity. Results: Overall adherence was 58.4% (95% CI: 50.9%–65.8%), with subgroup analysis showing differences in adherence across samples, with the highest adherence among men who had sex with men (MSM) (72.4%, 95% CI: 63.4%–81.3%) and the lowest adherence among survivors of sexual assault (SAs) (41.7%, 95% CI: 28.0%–55.3%). The incidence of ADRs was 60.3% (95% CI: 50.3%-70.3%), and the prevalence of PEP discontinuation associated with ADRs was 32.7% (95% CI: 23.7%–41.7%), with subgroup analyses revealing disparities in the prevalence of discontinuation associated with ADRs among samples with different drug regimens. Time trend analysis showed a slight downward trend in the incidence of ADRs and PEP discontinuation associated with ADRs. Conclusion: Adherence to PEP was less than 60% across samples, however, there was significant heterogeneity depending on the samples. SAs had the lowest adherence and the highest incidence of PEP discontinuation. Ongoing adherence education for participants, timely monitoring, and management of ADRs may improve adherence.


Liu S, Yuan D, Zhou Y, Fu G, Wang B




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV- population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Prevention
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment
  • Prevention
    • Biomedical interventions


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