Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected prisoners: A systematic review and meta-analysis


Data on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among prison inmates are limited and not previously synthesized in a systematic manner. The objective of this study was to provide accurate and up-to-date ART adherence estimates among prison inmates. We searched electronic databases for all studies reporting adherence as a primary or secondary outcome among prison inmates. A random-effects model was used to pool adherence rates; sensitivity, heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. Eleven studies involving 2895 HIV-infected prison inmates were included. The studies were carried out between 1992 and 2011 and reported between 1998 and 2013. A pooled analysis of all studies indicated a pooled estimate of 54.6% (95% confidence interval 48.1-60.9%) of prison inmates had adequate (>/=95%) ART adherence. The adherence estimates were significantly higher among cross-studies and studies that used self-reported measures. In summary, our findings indicate that optimal adherence remains a challenge among prison inmates. It is crucial to monitor ART adherence and develop appropriate interventions to improve adherence among these population.


Uthman OA, Oladimeji O, Nduka C.




  • Population(s)
    • Prisoners
    • General HIV+ population
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment


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