Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV patients in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis


We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in India, the third largest HIV epidemic in the world. We identified peer reviewed literature published between 2007 and 2017 to extract data on ART adherence. We estimated pooled prevalence of adherence to ART using a random-effects model. Thirty-two eligible studies (n = 11,543) were included in the meta-analysis. Studies were mostly clustered in the southern and western Indian states. Overall, 77% (95% Confidence Interval 73-82; I(2) = 96.80%) of patients had optimum adherence to ART. Women had higher prevalence of optimum adherence compared to men. Depression or anxiety were significant risk factors in seven of the fifteen studies reporting determinants of nonadherence. Studies should be performed to explore the reasons for gender gap in ART adherence and HIV program in India should prioritize mental health issues among HIV patients to improve ART adherence


Chakraborty A, Hershow RC, Qato DM, Stayner L, Dworkin MS




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • Men who have sex with men
    • People who use drugs
    • Sex workers
    • General HIV+ population
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment
  • Substance Use
    • Alcohol
    • Nonmedicinal drugs
  • Mental Health
    • Depression


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