Adherence to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis intervention by transgender women: A systematic review


Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is higher in transgender populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) intervention is successful in reducing HIV acquisition. We aimed to investigate the adherence to oral PrEP by HIV-negative transgender women (TW). We followed the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the PRISMA Statement. We searched in WoS, OVID, Scopus, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Participation and adherence to the intervention were low for TW compared to cisgender men who have sex with men (cMSM), and it was measured mostly by self-report (72.7%) or tenofovir-diphosphate/emtricitabine triphosphate dried blood spot (45.5%). Awareness should increase and the effect of oral PrEP on gender-affirming hormone therapy should be explained to TW at the beginning of the trials. One limitation is that our sample size was dominated by two Thai studies with TW sex workers. Future studies should evaluate adherence to new PrEP modalities.


Moncayo JE, Pérez-Arizabaleta MDM, Villegas-Trujillo LM, Rodríguez-Ortiz A




  • Population(s)
    • Transgender communities
    • General HIV- population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Prevention
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment
  • Prevention
    • Biomedical interventions


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