Association between genital mycoplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis) and HIV infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis


Several studies have reported the occurrence of genital mycoplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Mycoplasma fermentans) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but findings are conflicting. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the association of U. urealyticum and M. hominis with HIV infection. We searched seven databases to retrieve articles reporting the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas among HIV-infected patients. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and displayed by forest plots. Cochran Q and I2 statistics were applied to assess heterogeneity. In addition, a funnel plot with an Egger’s test was performed to evaluate potential publication bias. Of the 1123 articles identified, 12 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Our results revealed that HIV-infected patients had higher colonization rates by U. urealyticum and M. hominis (single infection) than the control group (OR = 1.526; 95% CI: 1.202–1.937; p = 0.001 and OR = 2.610; 95% CI: 1.890–3.604; p = 0,000, respectively). However, coinfection seemed to be not associated with HIV infection (OR = 1.311; 95% CI: 0.744–2.311; p = 0.348). A subgroup analysis showed that study design and geographical origin were a source of heterogeneity in the studies that reported coinfection among HIV-infected patients. However, there was no statistical evidence of publication bias. Our study revealed that genital mycoplasmas were more frequent in HIV-infected patients than healthy individuals, resulting from a decline of natural immunity due to HIV. More effort should be dedicated to the screening, prevention, and treatment of genital mycoplasmas, to curb the spread of HIV.


Boujemaa S, Singh-Suri G, Kaur G




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-infections
    • Other


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