Association between integrase strand transfer inhibitor use with insulin resistance and incident diabetes mellitus in persons living with HIV: A systematic review and meta-analysis


Whether integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are associated with a higher risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) than other antiretroviral therapies (ART) needs to be established.

MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and registries were searched for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 15 June 2022. Eligible studies reported incident DM or mean changes in insulin resistance measured by Homeostatic Model for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) in patients on INSTIs compared with other ARTs. We performed random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs.

A total of 16 studies were pooled: 13 studies meta-analyzed for incident diabetes with a patient population of 72 404 and 3 for changes in HOMA-IR. INSTI therapy was associated with a lower risk of incident diabetes in 13 studies (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.96, I2=29%), of which 8 randomized controlled trials demonstrated a 22% reduced risk (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.96, I2=0%). INSTIs had a lower risk compared with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.89, I2=0%) but similar to protease inhibitor-based therapy (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.01, I2=27%). The risk was lower in studies with longer follow-up (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.94, I2=24%) and among ART-naïve patients (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.94, I2=3%) but increased in African populations (RR 2.99, 95% CI 2.53 to 3.54, I2=0%).

In conclusion, exposure to INSTIs was not associated with increased risk of DM, except in the African population. Stratified analyses suggested reduced risk among ART-naïve patients and studies with longer follow-up.


Mulindwa F, Kamal H, Castelnuovo B, Byonanebye DM, Schwarz JM, Bollinger R, Brusselaers N




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-morbidities
    • Other


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