Association of schistosomiasis and HIV infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis


BACKGROUND: Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) affects up to 56 million women in sub-Saharan Africa and may increase risk of HIV infection. METHODS: To assess the association of schistosomiasis with HIV infection, peer-reviewed literature published until 31 December 2018 was examined and a pooled estimate for the odds ratio was generated using Bayesian random effects models. RESULTS: Of the 364 abstracts that were identified, 26 were included in the summary. Eight reported odds ratios of the association between schistosomiasis and HIV; one reported a transmission hazard ratio of 1.8 (95% CI, 1.2-2.6) among women and 1.4 (95% CI, 1.0-1.9) among men; 11 described the prevalence of schistosomiasis among HIV-positive people (range, 1.5-36.6%); and six reported the prevalence of HIV among people with schistosomiasis (range, 5.8-57.3%). Six studies were selected for quantitative analysis. The pooled estimate for the odds ratio of HIV among people with schistosomiasis was 2.3 (95% CI, 1.2-4.3). CONCLUSIONS: A significant association of schistosomiasis with HIV was found. However, a specific summary estimate for FGS could not be generated. A research agenda was provided to determine the effect of FGS on HIV infection. The WHO’s policy on mass drug administration for schistosomiasis may prevent HIV.


Patel P, Rose CE, Kjetland EF, Downs JA, Mbabazi PS, Sabin K, Chege W, Watts DH, Secor WE




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-infections
    • Other


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