Cardiovascular challenges in the era of antiretroviral therapy for AIDS/ HIV: A comprehensive review of research advancements, pathophysiological insights, and future directions


Cardiovascular disease, particularly coronary heart disease, is becoming more common among those living with HIV. Individuals with HIV face an increased susceptibility to myocardial infarction, also known as a heart attack, as compared to the general population in developed countries. This heightened risk can be attributed mainly to the presence of effective antiretroviral drugs and the resulting longer lifespan. Some cardiac issues linked to non-antiretroviral medications, including myocarditis, endocarditis, cardiomyopathy with dilation, pulmonary hypertension, and oedema of the heart, may affect those not undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART). Impaired immune function and systemic inflammation are significant contributors to this phenomenon after initiating highly aggressive antiretroviral treatment ART. It is becoming more challenging to determine the best course of treatment for HIV-associated cardiomyopathy due to new research suggesting that protease inhibitors might have a negative impact on the development of HF. Currently, the primary focus of research on ART medications is centered on the cardiovascular adverse effects of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors. This review paper thoroughly evaluates the advancements achieved in cardiovascular disease research and explores the potential implications for prospects. Additionally, it considers the field’s future prospects while examining how ART might be altered and its clinical applications.


Suleman M, Khan SU, Hussain T, Khan MU, Shamsul Hassan S, Majid M, Khan SU, Shehzad Khan M, Shan Ahmad RU, Arif M, Ahmad Z, Crovella S, Anthony S




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment
  • Co-morbidities
    • Cardiovascular


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