Category Archives: Neurocognitive disorders

Multimodal approach to neurocognitive function in people living with HIV in the cART era: A comprehensive review

2024

Combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has revolutionized the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and has markedly improved the disease burden and life expectancy of people living with HIV. HIV enters...

Molecular role of HIV-1 human receptors (CCL5-CCR5 Axis) in neuroAIDS: A systematic review

2024

Chronic HIV-1 infection can cause neurological illness, also known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The elevated level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as C-C Chemokine Ligand 5 (CCL5/RANTES), is...

HIV associated neurocognitive disorder screening and diagnosis pathways in Australia: A scoping review and international implications

2024

Symptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a complication of HIV (cognitive impairment, difficulties with everyday functioning). If detected early, interventions assist with optimizing care, avoiding rapid decline and enhancing coping....

Transactivator of transcription (Tat)-induced neuroinflammation as a key pathway in neuronal dysfunction: A scoping review

2024

The activity of HIV-1 and its viral proteins within the central nervous system (CNS) is responsible for a wide array of neuropathological effects, resulting in a spectrum of neurocognitive deficits...

Recent advances in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: A focus on older adults and sub-Saharan Africa

2024

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed recent literature on prevalence and interventional approaches for cognitive impairment in the context of HIV infection alongside current controversies and challenges around its nomenclature, screening,...

The relationship between HIV-1 neuroinflammation, neurocognitive impairment and encephalitis pathology: A systematic review of studies investigating post-mortem brain tissue

2024

The activities of HIV-1 in the central nervous system (CNS) are responsible for a dysregulated neuroinflammatory response and the subsequent development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The use of post-mortem...

Neurological, behavioral, and pathophysiological characterization of the co-occurrence of substance use and HIV: A narrative review

2023

Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has greatly reduced the severity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in people living with HIV (PLWH); however, PLWH are more likely than the general population to use...

The prognosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral treatment: A systematic review

2023

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a viral infection of the central nervous system (CNS), is most commonly associated with advanced HIV infection. Although the severe neurological conditions—PML and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy...

A meta-analysis of gray matter volume abnormalities in HIV patients

2023

HIV infection is known to have significant effects on central nervous system. This study conducted a meta-analysis of whole voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in HIV patients (N=435) and HIV-uninfected controls (N=397)....

Selection of cognitive impairment screening tools for longitudinal implementation in an HIV clinical care setting

2023

To address and slow the increasing burden of cognitive impairment in people surviving to older ages with HIV requires longitudinal monitoring of cognition. We conducted a structured literature review to...

Prevalence and variability of HIV/AIDS-associated neurocognitive impairments in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis

2023

Background: HIV/AIDS-associated neurocognitive impairments negatively affect treatment adherence, viral load suppression, CD4 count, functionality, and the overall quality of life of people with seropositive status. However, huge variability is observed across...

Association of apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 and cognitive impairment in adults living with human immunodeficiency virus: A meta-analysis

2023

Background: It is controversial whether the apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele (APOE ε4) is a risk gene for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related neurocognitive impairment. This meta-analysis aimed to summarize evidence of...

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