Change in condom use in populations newly aware of HIV diagnosis in the United States and Canada: A systematic review and meta-analysis


HIV-infected individuals “aware” of their infection are more likely to use condoms, compared to HIV-infected “unaware” persons. To quantify this likelihood, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of U.S. and Canadian studies. Twenty-one eligible studies included men who have sex with men (MSM; k = 15), persons who inject drugs (PWID; k = 2), and mixed populations of high-risk heterosexuals (HRH; k = 4). Risk ratios (RR) of “not always using condoms” with partners of any serostatus were lower among aware MSM (RR 0.44 [not significant]), PWID (RR 0.70) and HRH (RR 0.27); and, in aware MSM, with partners of HIV-uninfected or unknown status (RR 0.46). Aware individuals had lower “condomless sex likelihood” with HIV-uninfected or unknown status partners (MSM: RR 0.58; male PWID: RR 0.44; female PWID: RR 0.65; HRH: RR 0.35) and with partners of any serostatus (MSM only, RR 0.72). The association diminished over time. High risk of bias compromised evidence quality.


Malekinejad M, Blodgett J, Horvath H, Parriott A, Hutchinson AB, Shrestha RK, McCabe D, Volberding P, Kahn JG




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention
    • Sexual risk behaviour


Abstract/Full paper

Email 1 selected articles

Email 1 selected articles

Error! The email wasn't sent. Please try again.

Your email has been sent!