Clinical relevance of drug interactions in people living with human immunodeficiency virus on antiretroviral therapy—Update 2022: Systematic review


BACKGROUND: The clinical outcomes of antiretroviral drugs may be modified through drug interactions; thus, it is important to update the drug interactions in people living with HIV (PLHIV). AIM: To update clinically relevant drug interactions in PLHIV on antiretroviral therapy with novel drug interactions published from 2017 to 2022. METHODS: A systematic review in Medline/PubMed database from July 2017 to December 2022 using the Mesh terms antiretroviral agents and drug interactions or herb-drug interactions or food-drug interactions. Publications with drug interactions in humans, in English or Spanish, and with full-text access were retrieved. The clinical relevance of drug interactions was grouped into five levels according to the gravity and probability of occurrence. RESULTS: A total of 366 articles were identified, with 219 (including 87 citation lists) were included, which allowed for the identification of 471 drug interaction pairs; among them, 291 were systematically reported for the first time. In total 42 (14.4%) and 137 (47.1%) were level one and two, respectively, and 233 (80.1%) pairs were explained with the pharmacokinetic mechanism. Among these 291 pairs, protease inhibitors (PIs) and ritonavir/cobicistat-boosted PIs, as well as integrase strand transfer inhibitors (InSTIs), with 70 (24.1%) and 65 (22.3%) drug interaction pairs of levels one and two, respectively, were more frequent. CONCLUSIONS: In PLHIV on antiretroviral therapy, we identify 291 drug interaction pairs systematically reported for the first time, with 179 (61.5%) being assessed as clinically relevant (levels one and two). The pharmacokinetic mechanism was the most frequently identified. PIs, ritonavir/cobicistat-boosted PIs, and InSTIs were the antiretroviral groups with the highest number of clinically relevant drug interaction pairs (levels one and two).


Amariles P, Rivera-Cadavid M, Ceballos M




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Determinants of Health
  • Determinants of Health
    • Health services
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment


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