Combined “Test and Treat” campaigns for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C: A systematic review to provide evidence to support World Health Organization treatment guidelines


BACKGROUND: Worldwide, more than 39 million individuals are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 296 million with chronic hepatitis B (HBV), and 58 million with chronic hepatitis C (HCV). Despite successful treatments for these blood-borne viruses (BBVs), >1.7 million people die per annum. To combat this, the World Health Organization recommended implementing triple testing for HIV, HBV, and HCV. This systematic review aims to provide evidence for this policy, by identifying the prevalence of these BBVs and discussing the costs of available triple tests. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and Global Health were searched to identify articles published between 1 January and 24 February 2023. Included studies reported the prevalence of HIV (anti-HIV 1/2 antibodies), HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen) and HCV (anti-HCV antibodies). Results were stratified into risk groups: blood donors, general population, healthcare attendees, individuals experiencing homelessness, men who have sex with men, people who use drugs, pregnant people, prisoners, and refugees and immigrants. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-five studies sampling >14 million individuals were included. The mean prevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV was 0.22% (standard deviation [SD], 7.71%), 1.09% (SD, 5.80%) and 0.65% (SD, 14.64%) respectively. The mean number of individuals testing positive for at least 1 BBV was 1.90% (SD, 16.82%). Therefore, under triple testing, for every individual diagnosed with HIV, another 5 would be diagnosed with HBV and 3 with HCV. Testing for all 3 viruses is available for US$2.48, marginally more expensive than the lowest-priced isolated HIV test ($1.00). CONCLUSIONS: This article highlights a potential avenue for healthcare improvement by implementing combination testing programs. Hopefully, this will help to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal of elimination of these BBV epidemics by 2030.


Beard N, Hill A




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
    • General HIV- population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment
  • Testing
    • Testing
  • Co-infections
    • Hepatitis B, C
  • Health Systems
    • Financial arrangements
    • Delivery arrangements


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