Condom use and risk factors of inconsistent or low use of the condoms during heterosexual anal intercourse in sub-Saharan Africa: A scoping review
BACKGROUND: Anal intercourse (AI) has been reported to be the riskiest among other sexual intercourses in spreading human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the risk could be minimized by the use of condoms. Whilst AI is believed to be practised mainly by men who have sex with men, AI has also been reported to occur in heterosexual relationships. However, data on condom use during heterosexual AI are inadequate in sub-Saharan Africa. METHOD: A scoping review of English language published articles on condom use during heterosexual anal sex, whose studies were conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa from January 2010 to May 2020 was conducted. Articles were searched systematically on PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases. Heterosexual AI was defined as penile penetrative anal sex between a man and a woman regardless of the sexual orientation of the 2 parties involved in the act of heterosexual AI. FINDINGS: A total of 21 studies were eligible for analysis. Most of the studies (17 out of 21) reported females to be involved in heterosexual AI whilst 9 out of 21 studies reported males to be involved in heterosexual AI. The lifetime prevalence estimate of condom use during heterosexual AI ranged from 29%–97.5%. Other prevalence estimates of condom use during heterosexual anal intercourse were reported over various recall periods which were: 12 months’ recall period with prevalence estimates ranging from 2.9%–59%; prevalence estimates for the past 3 months which ranged from 50%–94.4%; 1 month’s recall period with prevalence estimates ranging from 5%–96% and prevalence estimates for the last intercourse experienced ranging from 1%–55%. Condom use during heterosexual AI was generally low and/or inconsistent among female sex workers (FSWs), men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and some women in the general population. There were no risk factors identified in the study for the inconsistent or low use of condoms during heterosexual AI. CONCLUSION: Evidence from this study suggests condom use during heterosexual AI could be fairly low especially among groups such as FSWs, MSMW and some women in the general population. Risk factors for using condoms inconsistently or using condoms less during heterosexual AI are not clear. Heterosexual anal intercourse and condom use during the AI practice is generally an under-studied subject in Sub-Saharan Africa. Future studies need to explore on heterosexual AI and condom use practices during AI comprehensively so that there can be concrete evidence on the subject which will inform targeted interventions aimed at reducing HIV among heterosexual populations in SSA.
Nyoni P, James N
- Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
- Heterosexual men
- General HIV- population
- Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
- Sexual risk behaviour