Curable sexually transmitted infections among women with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic review and meta-analysis


OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) cause significant morbidity among women with HIV and increase HIV transmission. We estimated the prevalence of four STIs among women with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and compared prevalence among women with and without HIV. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched for studies published January 1, 1999–December 19, 2019 reporting prevalence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, or Mycoplasma genitalium among women with HIV in SSA. We excluded studies conducted in high-risk groups (e.g, female sex workers). We extracted data on laboratory-confirmed STIs among women with HIV and, when included, among women without HIV. We estimated pooled prevalence for each STI among women with HIV using inverse variance heterogeneity meta-analysis, compared prevalence to women without HIV, and examined the influences of region, clinical setting, and pregnancy status in subgroup analyses. RESULTS: We identified 3756 unique records; 67 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Prevalence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and Mycoplasma genitalium was 3.5%, 4.0%, 15.6%, and 10.2%, respectively. Chlamydia prevalence was lower in Eastern (2.8%) than in Southern (12.5%) and West/Central (19.1%) Africa combined. Prevalence of chlamydia and trichomoniasis was higher among pregnant (8.1%, 17.6%) than nonpregnant (1.7%, 12.3%) women. All STIs were more prevalent among women with than without HIV (relative risks ranging 1.54–1.89). CONCLUSION: STIs are common among women with HIV in SSA, and more common among women with than without HIV. Integrated STI and HIV care could substantially impact STI burden among women with HIV, with potential downstream impacts on HIV transmission.


Jarolimova J, Platt LR, Curtis MR, Philpotts LL, Bekker LG, Morroni C, Shahmanesh M, Mussa A, Barracks K, Ciaranello AL, Parker RA, Bassett IV, Dugdale CM




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • Women
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-infections
    • Chlamydia
    • Gonorrhea
    • Other


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