Current ARTs, virologic failure, and implications for AIDS management: A systematic review


Antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) have revolutionized the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, significantly improved patient outcomes, and reduced the mortality rate and incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, despite the remarkable efficacy of ART, virologic failure remains a challenge in the long-term management of HIV-infected individuals. Virologic failure refers to the persistent detectable viral load in patients receiving ART, indicating an incomplete suppression of HIV replication. It can occur due to various factors, including poor medication adherence, drug resistance, suboptimal drug concentrations, drug interactions, and viral factors such as the emergence of drug-resistant strains. In recent years, extensive efforts have been made to understand and address virologic failure in order to optimize treatment outcomes. Strategies to prevent and manage virologic failure include improving treatment adherence through patient education, counselling, and supportive interventions. In addition, the regular monitoring of viral load and resistance testing enables the early detection of treatment failure and facilitates timely adjustments in ART regimens. Thus, the development of novel antiretroviral agents with improved potency, tolerability, and resistance profiles offers new options for patients experiencing virologic failure. However, new treatment options would also face virologic failure if not managed appropriately. A solution to virologic failure requires a comprehensive approach that combines individualized patient care, robust monitoring, and access to a range of antiretroviral drugs.


Foka FET, Mufhandu HT




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Determinants of Health
  • Determinants of Health
    • Education
    • Health services
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment


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