Diagnostic value of Lipoarabinomannan antigen for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in adults and children with or without HIV infection


Objectives: Even today, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading public health problem; yet, the current diagnostic methods still have a few shortcomings. Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) provides an opportunity for TB diagnosis, and urine LAM detection seems to have a promising and widely applicable prospect.

Design or methods: Four databases were systematically searched for eligible studies, and the quality of the studies was evaluated using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies-2 (QUADAS-2). Graphs and tables were created to show sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), the area under the curve (AUC), and so on.

Results: Based on the included 67 studies, the pooled sensitivity of urine LAM was 48% and specificity was 89%. In the subgroup analyses, the FujiLAM test had higher sensitivity (69%) and specificity (92%). Furthermore, among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 50% of TB patients were diagnosed using a urine LAM test. Besides, the CD4+ cell count was inversely proportional to the sensitivity.

Conclusions: Urine LAM is a promising diagnostic test for TB, particularly using the FujiLAM in HIV-infected adults whose CD4+ cell count is ≤100 per μl. Besides, the urine LAM test shows various sensitivities and specificities in different subgroups in terms of age, HIV infection status, CD4+ cell count, and testing method.


Yin X, Ye QQ, Wu KF, Zeng JY, Li NX, Mo JJ, Huang PY, Xie LM, Xie LY, Guo XG




  • Population(s)
    • Children or Youth (less than 18 years old)
    • General HIV+ population
    • General HIV- population
  • Testing
    • Testing
  • Co-infections
    • Tuberculosis


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