Echinococcosis in immunocompromised patients: A systematic review


BACKGROUND: Human echinococcoses are the infection caused by the larval stages of different species of the genus Echinococcus, mostly E. granulosus and E. multilocularis. There is no aggregated information on the nature and characteristics echinococcosis in patients with immunodeficiency. This study presents a systematic review of the current literature published on the status of echinococcosis in immunocompromised individuals. METHODS: An electronic search of related articles in four major databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar) was performed up to November 2021. All related studies meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed for qualitative analysis. Data available on different characteristics of the diseases were extracted. The data were subsequently categorized into two subgroups: Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) and Alveolar Echinococcosis (AE). RESULTS: Twenty-eight articles related to the existence of echinococcosis in immunocompromised hosts were included. HIV/AIDS was found as the most frequent condition in immunocompromised CE patients. Most of the CE cases with immunodeficiency were female (66.4%). The dominant stages of the cysts were CE2 and CE3. Surgery was performed for 76.2% of the patients. A high mortality rate of 23.8% was recorded in CE patients. Malignancies was the dominant condition in AE patients. CONCLUSION: Findings of the present study can potentially improve our understanding of the impact of immunodeficiency syndromes on echinococcoses and contribute to an improved diagnosis, treatment and quality of care in immunocompromised patients suffering from cystic and alveolar echinococcosis.


Ghasemirad H, Bazargan N, Shahesmaeili A, Harandi MF




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-infections
    • Other


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