Effectiveness of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 and the need for alternative preventative approaches in immunocompromised individuals: A narrative review of systematic reviews
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including administration of booster doses, continues to be the most effective method for controlling COVID-19-related complications including progression to severe illness and death. However, there is mounting evidence that more needs to be done to protect individuals with compromised immune function. AREAS COVERED: Here, we review the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination in immunocompromised patients, including those with primary immunodeficiencies, HIV, cancer (including hematological malignancies), solid organ transplant recipients, and chronic kidney disease, as reported in systematic reviews/meta-analyses published over a 12-month period in PubMed. Given the varied responses to vaccination in patients with compromised immune function, a major goal of this analysis was to try to identify specific risk-factors related to vaccine failure. EXPERT OPINION: COVID-19 remains a global problem, with new variants of concern emerging at regular intervals. There is an ongoing need for optimal vaccine strategies to combat the pandemic. In addition, alternative treatment approaches are needed for immunocompromised patients who may not mount an adequate immune response to current COVID-19 vaccines. Identification of high-risk patients and the introduction of newer antiviral approaches such as monoclonal antibodies will offer physicians therapeutic options for such vulnerable individuals.
Tan TT, Ng HJ, Young B, Khan BA, Shetty V, Azmi N, Clissold S
- General HIV- population
- Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
- Biomedical interventions
- Health Systems
- Delivery arrangements