Effects of music and music therapy on medical patients: A meta-analysis of the research and implications for the future


Although the literature examining the effects of music medicine or music therapy interventions in medical settings is both large and growing, this literature is difficult to summarize because of of its diversity. The current article reports the results of a recent meta-analysis of 183 studies across 11 medical specialty areas with 40 categories of outcome variables. Emphasized are results for patients with cancer, those who are terminally ill, and patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Meta-analysis results revealed significantly greater effect sizes for outcomes of music therapy versus music medicine interventions, and significant and homogeneous size effects for several outcome variables, including pain, well-being, mood, and nausea/vomiting. Suggestions for future research are provided. [References: 20]


Dileo C.




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Mental Health
    • Other


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