Efficacy and biological safety of lopinavir/ritonavir based anti-retroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials


Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is the first ritonavir-boosted protease-inhibitor used in second-line anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited regions. To evaluate the efficacy and safety outcomes of LPV/r in treatment-naive and -experienced HIV-infected adults and pregnant women, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ten cohorts from 8 articles involving 2,584 ART-naive patients, 5 cohorts from 4 articles involving 1,124 ART-experienced patients, and 8 cohorts from 7 articles involving 2,191 pregnant women were selected for the meta-analyses. For ART-naive patients, the virologic response rate (72.3%) of LPV/r combined with tenofovir (TDF) plus lamivudine/emtricitabine (3TC/FTC) arms was significantly greater than that of LPV/r plus non-TDF-FTC arms (65.5%, p = 0.047). For ART-experienced patients, the use of LPV/r revealed a 55.7% probability of virologic success. The incidence of abnormal total cholesterol (6.9%) for ART-experienced patients was significantly lower than that for ART-naive patients (13.1%, p < 0.001). The use of LPV/r in pregnant women revealed a mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate of 1.1%, preterm birth rate of 13.2%, and low birth weight rate of 16.2%. Our meta-analysis indicated that LPV/r was an efficacious regimen for ART-naive patients and was more tolerable for ART-experienced patients. LPV/r also displayed a significant effect in preventing MTCT.


Huang X, Xu Y, Yang Q, Chen J, Zhang T, Li Z, Guo C, Chen H, Wu H, Li N.




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
    • Other
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment
  • Prevention
    • Biomedical interventions


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