Epidemiology, risk factors, and prevention strategies of HIV, HPV, and other sexually transmitted infections among cisgender and transgender youth: A narrative review


Adolescents face an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with alarming data especially concerning HIV. Limited data exists for teenagers regarding the influence of their gender identity (GI) and sexual orientation on the risk of STIs. This narrative review aims to analyse the available data to provide a comprehensive overview of STIs incidence and risk factors among adolescents, taking into account the unique circumstances related to various sexual orientations and GIs. Transgender and gender minority (TGM) youth experience more challenges accessing health services compared to cisgender youth. This is often attributed to non-inclusive health environments, barriers to obtaining medical gender affirmation, and an underestimation of sexual risk perception. Literature analysis has revealed that the majority of adolescents, both cisgender and TGM, have limited awareness regarding the risks associated with their sexual behaviors, the most common sexually transmitted diseases, and strategies for prevention, such as PrEP and HPV vaccination. Moreover, a significant portion of pediatricians possess limited knowledge and comfort in addressing various aspects of sexual health, particularly when it involves discussing topics such as sexual orientation, gender identity, and sexual behaviors with sexually active adolescents. This underscores the pressing need for enhanced education for pediatricians, specifically focusing on STIs diagnosis, prevention, and screening.


Diana P, Esposito S




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
    • Determinants of Health
  • Determinants of Health
    • Education
    • Health services
  • Population(s)
    • Children or Youth (less than 18 years old)
    • Transgender communities
    • General HIV- population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Prevention
  • Prevention
    • Sexual risk behaviour
    • Drug use behaviours/harm reduction
    • Biomedical interventions
    • Education/media campaigns
  • Co-infections
    • Other


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