Gender difference in advanced HIV disease and late presentation according to European consensus definitions


Effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy is limited for a large proportion of individuals living with HIV presenting for medical care at an advanced stage. Controversial results of gender differences in risk of late HIV diagnosis were reported among existing literatures. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to synthesize a summary of gender differences in risk of advanced HIV disease (AHD) and late presentation (LP) according to European consensus definitions. Totally, 32 studies were included based on predetermined selection criteria. The pooled adjusted odds ratios of males presenting with AHD and LP compared with females were 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59-1.89) and 1.38 (95% CI, 1.18-1.62) with significant heterogeneity observed (I(2) = 78.50%, and I(2) = 85.60%, respectively). Subgroup analysis revealed that time lag, study location, number of patients, proportion of females, study design, number of adjusted variables might be potential source of heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis showed robustness of the results. No publication bias was observed in studies on AHD or LP. The current meta-analysis indicated that males are at higher risk of AHD or LP compared with females. More attention should be paid to males to make sure early testing, diagnosis, and treatment, and ultimately improve individual and population health.


Jiang H, Yin J, Fan Y, Liu J, Zhang Z, Liu L, Nie S.




  • Determinants of Health
    • Other
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment


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