Gender differences in suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide death among people living with HIV: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Objective: Although excess mortality, especially suicide, is a critical trait in people living with HIV, consensus about gender differences in these areas is lacking. We conducted meta-analyses to examine gender differences in suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide death among people living with HIV.
Methods: We systematically searched PubMed and Web of Science for studies written in English. In this review, suicide among people living with HIV includes suicide death, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Studies reporting the suicide prevalence among males and females living with HIV were eligible for inclusion in our review. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) served as the effect size index. Fixed-effects or random-effects meta-analyses were chosen based on the size of the heterogeneity.
Results: A total of 27 studies comprising 801 017 participants from 11 countries were included in the meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation was 18.0% (95% CI 13.3%–22.8%) in males and 20.8% (95% CI 16.4%–25.1%) in females, and there was a statistically significant higher risk of suicidal ideation in females living with HIV (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.09–1.56; p < 0.05). The overall prevalence of suicide attempts was 16.8% (95% CI 9.0%–24.5%) in males and 24.7% (95% CI 12.4%–37.1%) in females, and there was a statistically significant higher risk of suicide attempts in females living with HIV (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.02–1.75; p < 0.05). The pooled prevalence of suicide death was 1.2% (95% CI 0.5%–1.9%) among males and 0.2% (95% CI 0.1%–0.3%) among females, and the risk of suicide death between genders was not statistically significant (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.50–1.24; p = 0.298).
Conclusions: There were gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among people living with HIV. Females living with HIV were more likely to experience suicidal ideation and make suicide attempts, but there were no statistically significant gender differences in suicide death. Appropriate initiatives to optimize the recognition, treatment, and management suicide behaviours of males and females living with HIV may narrow this gender gap.
Hu FH, Zhao DY, Fu XL, Zhang WQ, Tang W, Hu SQ, Shen WQ, Chen HL
- Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
- General HIV+ population
- Mental Health