Global and regional estimate of HIV-associated stroke burden: A meta-analysis and population attributable modeling study


Background: This study aimed to determine the correlation between human-immunodeficiency-virus (HIV) infection and stroke, as well as to estimate the global, regional, and national burden of HIV-associated stroke.

Methods: A registered meta-analysis was performed by searching PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for relevant literature up to October 31, 2022. The pooled relative risk of stroke in HIV-infected people was calculated using a random-effects model. HIV prevalence and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) datasets were obtained from the Joint United Nations Program on HIV and AIDS, and the Global Health Data Exchange, respectively. The population attributable fraction was estimated and delivered to calculate the HIV-associated DALYs of stroke from 1990 to 2019, at the global, regional, and national levels. Pearson correlation analysis were conducted to assess the correlation between the age-standardized rate or estimated annual percentage changes and the sociodemographic index.

Results: Out of 10 080 identified studies, 11 were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with individuals without HIV-infection, the pooled relative risk of stroke in HIV-infected individuals was 1.40 (95% CI, 1.18–1.65). From 1990 to 2019, the global population attributable fraction of HIV-associated stroke increased almost 3-fold, while the HIV-associated DALYs increased from 18 595 (95% CI, 7485–31 196) in 1990 to 60 684 (95% CI, 24 281–101 894) in 2019. Meanwhile, HIV-associated DALYs varied by region, with Eastern and Southern Africa having the highest value of 126 160 in 2019. Moreover, countries with middle social development index were shouldering the highest increase trend of the HIV-associated DALYs age-standardized rates.

Conclusions: HIV-infected individuals face a significantly higher risk of stroke, and the global burden of HIV-associated stroke has increased over the past 3 decades, showing regional variations. Eastern and Southern Africa bear the highest burden, while Eastern Europe and Central Asia have seen significant growth. Health care providers, researchers, and decision-makers should give increased attention to stroke prevention and management in HIV-endemic areas.


Yang Y, Yao X, Liu Y, Zhao J, Sun P, Zhang Y, Li K, Chen Y, Zheng J, Deng L, Fan S, Ma X, Guo S, Shuai P, Wan Z




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-morbidities
    • Cardiovascular


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