Global prevalence, mortality, and main characteristics of HIV-associated pneumocystosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis


The epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-associated pneumocystosis (HAP) is poorly described on a worldwide scale. We searched related databases between January 2000 and December 2022 for studies reporting HAP. Meta-analysis was performed using StatsDirect (version 2.7.9) and STATA (version 17) according to the random-effects model for DerSimonian and Laird method and metan and metaprop commands, respectively. Twenty-nine studies with 38554 HIV-positive, 79893 HIV-negative, and 4044 HAP populations were included. The pooled prevalence of HAP was 35.4% (95% CI 23.8 to 47.9). In contrast, the pooled prevalence of PCP among HIV-negative patients was 10.16% (95% CI 2 to 25.3). HIV-positive patients are almost 12 times more susceptible to PCP than the HIV-negative population (OR: 11.710; 95% CI: 5.420 to 25.297). The mortality among HAP patients was 52% higher than non-PCP patients (OR 1.522; 95% CI 0.959 to 2.416). HIV-positive men had a 7% higher chance rate for PCP than women (OR 1.073; 95% CI 0.674 to 1.706). Prophylactic (OR: 6.191; 95% CI: 0.945 to 40.545) and antiretroviral therapy (OR 3.356; 95% CI 0.785 to 14.349) were used in HAP patients six and three times more than HIV-positive PCP-negatives, respectively. The control and management strategies should revise and updated by health policy-makers on a worldwide scale. Finally, for better management and understanding of the epidemiology and characteristics of this coinfection, designing further studies is recommended.


Ahmadpour E, Valilou S, Ghanizadegan MA, Seyfi R, Hosseini SA, Hatam-Nahavandi K, Hosseini H, Behravan M, Barac A, Morovati H




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment
  • Co-infections
    • Other


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