Hepatitis B virus in West African Children: systematic review and meta-analysis of HIV and other factors associated with Hepatitis B infection
While Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are endemic in West Africa, the prevalence of HBV/HIV coinfection and their associated risk factors in children remains unclear. In this review, we sought to assess HBsAg seroprevalence among 0- to 16-year-olds with and without HIV in West African countries and the risk factors associated with HBV infection in this population. Research articles between 2000 and 2021 that reported the prevalence of HBV and associated risk factors in children in West Africa were retrieved from the literature using the Africa Journals Online (AJOL), PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases as search tools. StatsDirect, a statistical software, was used to perform a meta-analysis of the retained studies. HBV prevalence and heterogeneity were then assessed with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot asymmetry and Egger’s test. Twenty-seven articles conducted across seven West African countries were included in this review. HBV prevalence among persons aged 0 to 16 years was 5%, based on the random analysis, given the great heterogeneity of the studies. By country, the highest prevalence was observed in Benin (10%), followed by Nigeria (7%), and Ivory Coast (5%), with Togo (1%) having the lowest. HBV prevalence in an HIV-infected population of children was (9%). Vaccinated children had lower HBV prevalence (2%) than unvaccinated children (6%). HBV prevalence with a defined risk factor such as HIV co-infection, maternal HBsAg positivity, undergoing surgery, scarification, or being unvaccinated ranged from 3-9%. The study highlights the need to reinforce vaccination of newborns, screening for HBV, and HBV prophylaxis among pregnant women in Africa, particularly in West Africa, to achieve the WHO goal of HBV elimination, particularly in children.
Fofana DB, Somboro AM, Maiga M, Kampo MI, Diakité B, Cissoko Y, McFall SM, Hawkins CA, Maiga AI, Sylla M, Gozlan J, El-Sayed MH, Morand-Joubert L, Murphy RL, Diakité M, Holl JL
- Children or Youth (less than 18 years old)
- General HIV+ population
- General HIV- population
- Hepatitis B, C