HIV-1 drug resistance detected by next-generation sequencing among ART-naive individuals: A systematic review and meta-analysis


Background: There are an increasing number of articles focused on the prevalence and clinical impact of pretreatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) detected by Sanger sequencing (SGS). PDR may contribute to the increased likelihood of virologic failure and the emergence of new resistance mutations. As SGS is gradually replaced by next-generation sequencing (NGS), it is necessary to assess the levels of PDR using NGS in ART-naïve patients systematically. NGS can detect the viral variants (low-abundance drug-resistant HIV-1 variants (LA-DRVs)) of virus quasi-species at levels below 20% that SGS may fail to detect. NGS has the potential to optimize current HIV drug resistance surveillance methods and inform future research directions. As the NGS technique has high sensitivity, it is highly likely that the level of pretreatment resistance would be underestimated using conventional techniques. Methods: For the systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched for original studies published in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase before 30 March 2023 that focused exclusively on the application of NGS in the detection of HIV drug resistance. Pooled prevalence estimates were calculated using a random effects model using the ‘meta’ package in R (version 4.2.3). We described drug resistance detected at five thresholds (>1%, 2%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of virus quasi-species). Chi-squared tests were used to analyze differences between the overall prevalence of PDR reported by SGS and NGS. Results: A total of 39 eligible studies were selected. The studies included a total of 15,242 ART-naïve individuals living with HIV. The prevalence of PDR was inversely correlated with the mutation detection threshold. The overall prevalence of PDR was 29.74% at the 1% threshold, 22.43% at the 2% threshold, 15.47% at the 5% threshold, 12.95% at the 10% threshold, and 11.08% at the 20% threshold. The prevalence of PDR to INSTIs was 1.22% (95%CI: 0.58–2.57), which is the lowest among the values for all antiretroviral drugs. The prevalence of LA-DRVs was 9.45%. At the 2% and 20% detection threshold, the prevalence of PDR was 22.43% and 11.08%, respectively. Resistance to PIs and INSTIs increased 5.52-fold and 7.08-fold, respectively, in those with a PDR threshold of 2% compared with those with PDR at 20%. However, resistance to NRTIs and NNRTIs increased 2.50-fold and 2.37-fold, respectively. There was a significant difference between the 2% and 5% threshold for detecting HIV drug resistance. There was no statistically significant difference between the results reported by SGS and NGS when using the 20% threshold for reporting resistance mutations. Conclusion: In this study, we found that next-generation sequencing facilitates a more sensitive detection of HIV-1 drug resistance than SGS. The high prevalence of PDR emphasizes the importance of baseline resistance and assessing the threshold for optimal clinical detection using NGS.


Ouyang F, Yuan D, Zhai W, Liu S, Zhou Y, Yang H




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment


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