HIV and prostate cancer: A systematic review of the literature


Malignancy occurs with increased frequency in the HIV-positive population. The true incidence of prostate cancer in this population is unknown. In the few cases that have been presented in the literature, prostate cancer in HIV-positive men appears to behave much like it does in HIV-negative men. Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men and the second leading cause of cancer death. Approximately 800,000 men in the United States are HIV positive, and innovative therapies have dramatically improved survival. HIV disproportionately impacts ethnic groups with increased risk of prostate cancer and has been associated with increases in the incidence of certain malignancies. Despite the high prevalence of both diseases, there is relatively little literature about prostate cancer in HIV-positive patients. There is no consensus on how to screen or treat this patient population. We review the literature with regards to incidence, screening, treatment, and outcomes of this poorly characterized population. We briefly discuss the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy and testosterone supplementation in the development of prostate cancer. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE key words ‘HIV,’ ‘prostate,’ ‘prostate cancer’ and ‘AIDS.’ Manual bibliographic review of cross-referenced items was also performed. A total of 176 unique abstracts and publications were reviewed; many authors provided data on the incidence of HIV and various malignancies including prostate cancer. Twelve unique publications providing detailed information on 60 patients with HIV and prostate cancer were identified. Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in HIV-positive men. With improved therapies for HIV and increasing survival, the importance for screening and treating prostate cancer is increasing. Acute outcomes of treatment do not demonstrate increased acute morbidity; however long-term outcomes have not been reported. [References: 42]


Silberstein J, Downs T, Lakin C, Kane CJ.




  • Population(s)
    • Men who have sex with men
    • Heterosexual men
  • Co-morbidities
    • Cancer


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