HIV care continuum interventions for transgender women: A topical review


Transgender women experience a disproportionate prevalence of HIV and barriers to linkage to care, retention in care, medication adherence, and viral suppression. As part of a national cooperative agreement funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration’s HIV/AIDS Bureau, we searched the literature from January 1, 2010, through June 1, 2020, for English-language articles on interventions designed to improve at least 1 HIV care continuum outcome or address 1 barrier to achieving HIV care continuum outcomes among transgender women diagnosed with HIV in the United States. To be included, articles needed to identify transgender women as a priority population for the intervention. We found 22 interventions, of which 15 reported quantitative or qualitative outcomes and 7 reported study protocols. Recent interventions have incorporated a range of strategies that show promise for addressing pervasive structural and individual barriers rooted in societal and cultural stigma and discrimination against transgender people. Cross-cutting themes found among the interventions included meaningful community participation in the design and implementation of the interventions; culturally affirming programs that serve as a gateway to HIV care and combine gender-affirming care and social services with HIV care; interventions to improve behavioral health outcomes; peer-led counseling, education, and navigation; and technology-based interventions to increase access to care management and online social support. Ongoing studies will further elucidate the efficacy and effectiveness of these interventions, with the goal of reducing disparities in the HIV care continuum and bringing us closer to ending the HIV epidemic among transgender women in the United States.


Goldhammer H, Marc LG, Psihopaidas D, Chavis NS, Massaquoi M, Cahill S, Rebchook G, Reisner S, Mayer KA, Cohen SM, Keuroghlian AS




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Determinants of Health
  • Determinants of Health
    • Education
    • Social support
    • Health services
    • Stigma/discrimination
  • Population(s)
    • Transgender communities
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Prevention
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Linkage/engagement in care
    • Retention in care
    • Treatment
  • Prevention
    • Education/media campaigns
  • Health Systems
    • Governance arrangements


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