HIV non-occupational post exposure prophylaxis in Nigeria: A systematic review of research evidence and practice


Background: Although non-occupational Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) has been proven to be efficacious in preventing HIV, it remains an underutilized prevention strategy in Nigeria. We aimed to conduct an overview of research studies on nPEP and practice in Nigeria from 2002 to 2018 examining: sociodemographic characteristics of study sample, awareness, knowledge and prior use of nPEP, reasons for HIV nPEP, timeliness in presenting for PEP, antiretrovirals (ARVs) used for nPEP, side effects and adherence, monitoring and follow-up visits, adherence to guidelines and recommendations for nPEP by healthcare institutions and the strength of evidence of reviewed studies. Methods: An electronic search on PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, Medline, Embase and Google Scholar for published studies on nPEP from January 2002 to December 2018. We conducted our search using different combinations of the keywords “HIV,” “non-occupational,” “nonoccupational,” “post-exposure,” “postexposure,” “prophylaxis” and “Nigeria.” Results: Five articles met the inclusion criteria for this study. About 25.4% of college students were aware of PEP.PEP awareness was significantly determined by the following factors ever tested for HIV, nude picture exchanges, sex without condom, and knowledge of partner’s HIV status. Across studies, exposed victims who presented for PEP were mostly females (64%-78%). Rape was the most frequently occurring reason for seeking nPEP (25.9%-64.1%). Although most patients presented for nPEP within 72 hours, follow up visits were generally low (0%-2%) across studies assessed, except for one study that reported a high follow up visit of 83.3%. Guidelines adherence by healthcare institutions could not be established due to lack of information on key variables. Conclusion: Our study highlights the paucity of research evidence on nPEP use in Nigeria, the societal and cultural contexts in which non-occupational exposures occur, healthcare providers’ roles and the public health and practice implications


Iloanusi SH, Mgbere OO, Abughosh SM, Essien EJ




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV- population
  • Prevention
    • Biomedical interventions


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