HIV testing strategies, types of tests, and uptake by men who have sex with men and transgender women: A systematic review and meta-analysis


This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of strategies and types of tests on HIV testing uptake by men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW), and in reaching PLWH. Articles published up to July 2020 were identified from major electronic databases and grey literature. Data were extracted and assessed for risk of bias. Estimates were pooled using random-effect meta-analysis while heterogeneity was evaluated by Cochran’s Q test and I2. This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020192740). Of 6820 titles, 263 studies (n = 67,288 participants) were included. The testing strategies reported in most studies were community- (71.2%) and facility-based (28.8%). Highest uptake, with facility-based testing, occurred and reached more PLWH while with standard laboratory tests, it occurred with the highest HIV prevalence among MSM. However, urine test showed a highest rate of new HIV infection. Multiple test combinations had the highest uptake and reached more PLWH among TGW. Various testing strategies, considering barriers and regional differences, and different test types, need be considered, to increase uptake among MSM and TGW.


Magno L, Pereira M, de Castro CT, Rossi TA, Azevedo LMG, GuimarĂ£es NS, Dourado I




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • Men who have sex with men
    • Transgender communities
  • Testing
    • Testing
  • Health Systems
    • Delivery arrangements


Abstract/Full paper

Email 1 selected articles

Email 1 selected articles

Error! The email wasn't sent. Please try again.

Your email has been sent!