HIV type-1 drug resistance in treatment-naive patients monitored using minority species assays: A systematic review and meta-analysis


BACKGROUND: The detection of mutations associated with drug resistance in HIV type-1 might be increased by applying minority species assays capable of identifying low frequency mutations in comparison with the use of population sequencing alone. Because minority species assays are mutation-specific, the benefit of this approach differs depending on the mutation being detected. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of published data reporting detection of genotypic drug resistance using allele-specific (AS)-PCR minority assays and by standard DNA sequencing in drug-naive populations. We calculated the fold increase of mutation detection for each study and pooled these via meta-analysis, displaying results using Forest plots. RESULTS: Our studies revealed an increase in detection of 1.9-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-2.7; P < 0.0005) for K103N, 4.4-fold (95% CI 1.2-16.6; P = 0.026) for Y181C, 4.8-fold (95% CI 1.5-15.1; P = 0.008) for L90M and 8.7-fold (95% CI 4.0-18.6; P < 0.0005) for M184V. We found no relationship between AS-PCR assay sensitivity and frequency of additional mutation detection. CONCLUSIONS: Additional detection of drug resistance mutations using AS-PCR minority mutation assays vary significantly depending on the mutation examined; however, the most marked increase in detection of resistance mutations was observed for M184V, a mutation seldom detected by standard techniques in drug-naive patients. We suggest that the presence of drug resistance mutations can be more accurately estimated using a combination of AS-PCR and standard genotyping.


Buckton AJ, Harris RJ, Pillay D, Cane PA.




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment
  • Testing
    • Testing


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