human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia: A meta-analysis and meta-regression


BACKGROUND: The number of positive and death cases from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still increasing until now. One of the most prone individuals, even in normal situations is patients with HIV. Currently, the evidence regarding the link between HIV and COVID-19 is still limited and conflicting. This study aims to analyze the relationship between HIV and poor outcomes of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed and Europe PMC database using specific keywords related to our aims until January 12th, 2021. All articles published on COVID-19 and HIV were retrieved. The quality of the study was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS) tool for observational studies. Statistical analysis was done using Review Manager 5.4 and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 3 software. RESULTS: A total of 38 studies with 18,271,025 COVID-19 patients were included in this meta-analysis. This meta-analysis showed that HIV was not associated with composite poor outcome [OR 1.08 (95% CI 0.95 – 1.23), p = 0.26, I2 = 68%, random-effect modelling]. Meta-regression showed that the association with composite poor outcome was influenced by hypertension (p < 0.00001) and diabetes (p = 0.0007). Subgroup analysis which involves only studies from African region showed that HIV was associated with composite poor outcomes [OR 1.11 (95% CI 1.03 – 1.21), p = 0.01, I2 = 0%, random-effect modelling]. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HIV should still be considered as a population for whom precautions are needed to prevent the COVID-19. The availability of antiretroviral therapy should be ensured.


Hariyanto TI, Putri C, Frinka P, Louisa J, Lugito NPH, Kurniawan A




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
    • General HIV- population
  • Co-infections
    • Other
  • Co-morbidities
    • Cardiovascular


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