Immunogenicity and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in people living with HIV: A systematic review and meta-analysis


OBJECTIVES: Available data show that COVID-19 vaccines may be less effective in people living with HIV (PLWH) who are at increased risk for severe COVID-19. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the immunogenicity and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in PLWH with healthy individuals. METHODS: Pubmed/Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched. Risk ratios of seroconversion were separately pooled using random-effects meta-analysis, and a systematic review without meta-analysis of SARS-CoV-2 antibody titer levels was performed after the first and second doses of a COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies with 6522 subjects met the inclusion criteria. After the first vaccine dose, seroconversion in PLWH was comparable to that in healthy individuals. After a second dose, seroconversion was slightly lower in PLWH compared with healthy controls, and antibody titers did not seem to be significantly affected or reduced among participants of both groups. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccines show favorable immunogenicity and efficacy in PLWH. A second dose is associated with consistently improved seroconversion, although it is slightly lower in PLWH than in healthy individuals. Additional strategies, such as a booster vaccination with messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccines, might improve seroprotection for these patients.


Yin J, Chen Y, Li Y, Wang C, Zhang X




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Prevention
  • Prevention
    • Biomedical interventions
  • Co-infections
    • Other


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