Impact of maternal HIV infection on perinatal outcomes: A systematic review


BACKGROUND: Maternal HIV infection remains a significant global health concern with potential repercussions on perinatal outcomes. Emphasis on early intervention to improve peri- and postnatal outcomes in infected mothers and infants is a valid therapeutic concern. OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively analyze perinatal outcomes associated with maternal HIV infection and evaluate adverse effects associated with the HIV infection in the existing literature. SEARCH STRATEGY: A comprehensive search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar was conducted from 2013 to September 2023, using relevant MeSH terms. SELECTION CRITERIA: The included studies encompassed original studies, cross-sectional, prospective, retrospective studies and observational studies focused on perinatal outcomes in the context of maternal HIV infection. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The selected studies underwent rigorous data collection and comprehensive quality checks and adhered to the PRISMA guidelines. MAIN RESULTS: Nine eligible studies from Brazil, China, India, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, the USA, and Canada were included. These studies have consistently demonstrated that maternal HIV infection is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. The analysis revealed a higher risk of preterm birth (OR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.39–1.78), low birth weight (OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.18–1.49), and small for gestational age (OR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.24–1.53) among infants born to mothers living with HIV. Notably, the impact of antiretroviral treatment (ART) on these outcomes varied, but maternal HIV infection remained a significant risk factor regardless of income level and geographic region. CONCLUSION: Maternal HIV infection is consistently associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, emphasizing the need for targeted interventions and improved prenatal care in pregnant women with HIV infection.


Atowoju I, Dawer P, Asrani M, Panjiyar B




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • Women
    • Children or Youth (less than 18 years old)
    • General HIV+ population


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