Incentive-based sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections screening in high-income countries: A systematic review
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing access to treatment and screening, rates of sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBI) continue to rise in high-income countries. The high cost of undiagnosed and untreated STBBI negatively affects individuals, health care systems, and societies. The use of monetary and non-monetary incentives may increase STBBI screening uptake in high-income countries. Incentivized screening programs are most effective when developed specific to context and target population. METHODS: Our review was performed according to the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Inclusion criteria were: English language, high-income countries, primary research studies, and age > 16 years. Study quality was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute quality assessment tools. RESULTS: The search yielded 6219 abstracts. 13 articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies took place in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Populations screened included: post-secondary and tertiary students, parolees or probationers, youth, and inner-city emergency department patients. Incentivized STBBI screened were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (n = 5), chlamydia (n = 7), and multiple infections (n = 1). Incentives offered were monetary (cash/gift cards/not specified) (n = 10), non-monetary (n = 1), and mixed (n = 2). Both monetary and non-monetary incentives enhance STBBI screening in high-income countries. CONCLUSION: Incentivized screening programs are most effective when developed specific to context and target population. Further research is needed to analyze incentivized screening across similar study designs and to evaluate long-term effectiveness.
Lambert T, Finlay J, Krahn J, Meyer G, Singh AE, Kennedy M, Caine V
- General HIV- population