Incidence of Pneumocystis pneumonia in immunocompromised patients without human immunodeficiency virus on intravenous pentamidine prophylaxis: A systematic review and meta-analysis


BACKGROUND: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is a first-line Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis agent, but monthly intravenous pentamidine (IVP) is used in immunocompromised hosts without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection because IVP is not associated with cytopenia and delayed engraftment. METHOD: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate breakthrough PCP incidence and adverse reactions in HIV-uninfected immunocompromised patients receiving IVP. MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and were searched from their inception until 15 December 2022. RESULTS: The pooled incidence of breakthrough PCP with IVP was 0.7% (95% CI, 0.3–1.4%, 16 studies, 3025 patients) and was similar when used as first-line prophylaxis (0.5%; 95% CI, 0.2–1.4%, 7 studies, 752 patients). The pooled incidence of adverse reactions was 11.3% (95% CI, 6.7–18.6%, 14 studies, 2068 patients). The pooled adverse event-related discontinuation was 3.7% (95% CI, 1.8–7.3%, 11 studies, 1802 patients), but was lower in patients receiving IVP monthly (2.0%; 95% CI 0.7–5.7%, 7 studies, 1182 patients). CONCLUSION: Monthly IVP is an appropriate second-line agent for PCP prophylaxis in certain non-HIV immunocompromised hosts, especially in patients with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Using IVP for PCP prophylaxis as an alternative to oral TMP-SMX while patients are unable to tolerate enteral medication administration is feasible.


Chiu CY, Ching PR




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV- population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Prevention
  • Prevention
    • Biomedical interventions
  • Co-infections
    • Other


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