Increasing awareness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and willingness to use HIV PrEP among men who have sex with men: A systematic review and meta-analysis of global data
INTRODUCTION: Integrated knowledge regarding pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and willingness to use PrEP can be useful for HIV prevention in high incidence groups. This review summarizes the awareness of PrEP and willingness to use PrEP among men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: Online electronic databases were searched before 31 August 2021. A meta-analysis was conducted to pool studies analysing PrEP awareness and willingness to use PrEP. LOESS regression and linear regression were applied to fit the trends over time for the proportion of MSM aware of PrEP and willing to use PrEP. Dose-response meta-analysis (DRMA) was conducted by a restricted cubic spline model to explore the relationship between willingness to use PrEP and selected factors. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 156 articles involving 228,403 MSM were included. The pooled proportions of MSM aware of PrEP and willing to use PrEP were 50.0 (95% CI: 44.8–55.2) and 58.6% (95% CI: 54.8–62.4), respectively. PrEP awareness varied among countries with different economic status and different WHO regions, among different publication and research years, PrEP types and support policies. PrEP willingness differed among countries with different economic status and groups with different risks of HIV. The awareness of PrEP increased from 2007 to 2019 with a slope of 0.040260 (p<0.0001), while the proportion of MSM willing to use PrEP decreased from 2007 to 2014 (slope = -0.03647, p = 0.00390) but increased after 2014 (slope = 0.04187, p = 0.03895). The main facilitators of willingness to use PrEP were PrEP awareness, condomless sexual behaviours, high perceived risk of HIV infection and influence of social network. The main barriers were doubts about the efficacy and side effects of PrEP. DRMA results indicated that MSM with more sexual partners and lower level of education were more willing to use PrEP. No publication bias was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The proportions of PrEP awareness and willingness to use PrEP among MSM have increased since 2014, although the awareness was low and the willingness was moderate. Improving awareness of PrEP through increasing access to PrEP-related health education and enhancing risk perceptions of HIV infection could have positive effects on the willingness to use PrEP among MSM.
Sun Z, Gu Q, Dai Y, Zou H, Agins B, Chen Q, Li P, Shen J, Yang Y, Jiang H
- Men who have sex with men
- General HIV- population
- Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
- Sexual risk behaviour
- Biomedical interventions