Influence of material deprivation on clinical outcomes among people living with HIV in high-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis


Despite developments in HIV treatment and care, disparities persist with some not fully benefiting from improvements in the HIV care continuum. We conducted a systematic review to explore associations between social determinants and HIV treatment outcomes (viral suppression and treatment adherence) in high-income countries. A random effects meta-analysis was performed where there were consistent measurements of exposures. We identified 83 observational studies eligible for inclusion. Social determinants linked to material deprivation were identified as education, employment, food security, housing, income, poverty/deprivation, socioeconomic status/position, and social class; however, their measurement and definition varied across studies. Our review suggests a social gradient of health persists in the HIV care continuum; people living with HIV who reported material deprivation were less likely to be virologically suppressed or adherent to antiretrovirals. Future research should use an ecosocial approach to explore these interactions across the lifecourse to help propose a causal pathway.


Papageorgiou V, Davies B, Cooper E, Singer A, Ward H




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Determinants of Health
  • Determinants of Health
    • Housing
    • Employment
    • Food security
    • Income
    • Education
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment


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