Intimate partner violence and engagement in HIV care and treatment among women: A systematic review and meta-analysis


OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the odds of engagement in HIV care and treatment among HIV-positive women reporting intimate partner violence (IPV). DESIGN: We systematically reviewed the literature on the association between IPV and engagement in care. Data sources included searches of electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and PsychoInfo), hand searches and citation tracking. METHODS: Two reviewers screened 757 full-text articles, extracted data and independently appraised study quality. Included studies were peer-reviewed and assessed IPV alongside engagement in care outcomes: antiretroviral treatment (ART) use; self-reported ART adherence; viral suppression; retention in HIV care. Odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Thirteen cross-sectional studies among HIV-positive women were included. Measurement of IPV varied, with most studies defining a ‘case’ as any history of physical and/or sexual IPV. Meta-analysis of five studies showed IPV to be significantly associated with lower ART use [OR 0.79, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.64-0.97]. IPV was associated with poorer self-reported ART adherence in seven studies (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.30-0.75) and lower odds of viral load suppression in seven studies (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.90). Lack of longitudinal data and measurement considerations should temper interpretation of these results. CONCLUSION: IPV is associated with lower ART use, half the odds of self-reported ART adherence and significantly worsened viral suppression among women. To ensure the health of HIV-positive women, it is essential for clinical programmes to address conditions that impact engagement in care and treatment. IPV is one such condition, and its association with declines in ART use and adherence requires urgent attention.


Hatcher AM, Smout EM, Turan JM, Christofides N, Stöckl H.




  • Determinants of Health
    • Abuse
  • Population(s)
    • Women
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Linkage/engagement in care
    • Retention in care
    • Treatment


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